I got to remembering an old sequence of mine, and wanted to share it for my current audience. A couple years ago I read a 1949-published book about numerical computing. And it addressed a problem I knew existed but hadn’t put much thought into. That is, how to calculate the logarithm of a number? Logarithms … well, we maybe don’t need them so much now. But they were indispensable for computing for a very long time. They turn the difficult work of multiplication and division into the easier work of addition and subtraction. They turn the really hard work of exponentiation into the easier work of multiplication. So they’re great to have. But how to get them? And, particularly, how to get them if you have a computing device that’s able to do work, but not very much work?

**Machines That Think About Logarithms** sets out the question, including mentioning Edmund Callis Berkeley’s book that got me started on this. And some talk about the kinds of logarithms and why we use each of them.

**Machines That Do Something About Logarithms** sets out some principles. These are all things that are generically true about logarithms, including about calculating logarithms. They’re just the principles that were put into clever play by Harvard’s IBM Automatic Sequence-Controlled Calculator in the 1940s.

**Machines That Give You Logarithms** explains how to use those tools. And lays out how to get the base-ten logarithm for most numbers that you would like with a tiny bit of computing work. I showed off an example of getting the logarithm of 47.2286 using only three divisions, four additions, and a little bit of looking up stuff.

**Without Machines That Think About Logarithms** closes out the cycle. One catch with the algorithm described is that you need to work out some logarithms ahead of time and have them on hand, ready to look up. They’re not ones that you care about particularly for any problem, but they make it easier to find the logarithm you do want. This essay talks about *which* logarithms to calculate, in order to get the most accurate results for the logarithm you want, using the least custom work possible.

And there we go. Logarithms are still indispensable for mathematical work, although I realize not so much because we ever care what the logarithm of 47.2286 or any other arbitrary number is. Logarithms have some nice analytic properties, though, and they make other work easier to do. So they’re still in use, but for different problems.

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## Author: Joseph Nebus

I was born 198 years to the day after Johnny Appleseed. The differences between us do not end there. He/him.
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