## A Summer 2015 Mathematics A To Z: ansatz

Sue Archer at the Doorway Between Worlds blog recently completed an A to Z challenge. I decided to follow her model and challenge and intend to do a little tour of some mathematical terms through the alphabet. My intent is to focus on some that are interesting terms of art that I feel non-mathematicians never hear. Or that they never hear clearly. Indeed, my first example is one I’m not sure I ever heard clearly described.

## Ansatz.

I first encountered this term in grad school. I can’t tell you when. I just realized that every couple sessions in differential equations the professor mentioned the ansatz for this problem. By then it felt too late to ask what it was I’d missed. In hindsight I’m not sure the professor ever made it clear. My research suggests the word is still a dialect rather than part of the universal language of mathematicians, and that it isn’t quite precisely defined.

What a mathematician means by the “ansatz” is the collection of ideas that go into solving a problem. This may be an assumption of what the solution should look like. This might be the assumptions of physical or mathematical properties a solution has to have. This might be a listing of properties that a valid solution would have to have. It could be the set of things you judge should be included, or ignored, in constructing a mathematical model of something. In short the ansatz is the set of possibly ad hoc assumptions you have to bring to a topic to make it something answerable. It’s different from the axioms of the field or the postulates for a problem. An axiom or postulate is assumed to be true by definition. The ansatz is a bunch of ideas we suppose are true because they seem likely to bring us to a solution.

An ansatz is good for getting an answer. It doesn’t do anything to verify that the answer means anything, though. The ansatz contains assumptions you the mathematician brought to the problem. You need to argue that the assumptions are reasonable, and reflect the actual problem you’re studying. You also should prove that the answer ultimately derived matches the actual behavior of whatever you were studying. Validating a solution can be the hardest part of mathematics, other than all the other parts of mathematics.

## Figuring Out The Penalty Of Going First

Let’s accept the conclusion that the small number of clean sweeps of Contestants Row is statistically significant, that all six winning contestants on a single episode of The Price Is Right come from the same seat less often than we would expect from chance alone, and that the reason for this is that whichever seat won the last item up for bids is less likely to win the next. It seems natural to suppose the seat which won last time — and which is therefore bidding first this next time — is at a disadvantage. The irresistible question, to me anyway, is: how big is that disadvantage? If no seats had any advantage, the first, second, third, and fourth bidders would be expected to have a probability of 1/4 of winning any particular item. How much less a chance does the first bidder need to have to get the one clean sweep in 6,000 episodes reported?

Chiaroscuro came to an estimate that the first bidder had a probability of about 17.6 percent of winning the item up for bids, and I agree with that, at least if we make a couple of assumptions which I’m confident we are making together. But it’s worth saying what those assumptions are because if the assumptions do not hold, the answers come out different.

The first assumption was made explicitly in the first paragraph here: that the low number of clean sweeps is because the chance of a clean sweep is less than the 1 in 1000 (or to be exact, 1 in 1024) chance which supposes every seat has an equal probability of winning. After all, the probability that we saw so few clean sweeps for chance alone was only a bit under two percent; that’s unlikely but hardly unthinkable. We’re supposing there is something to explain.