Reading the Comics, February 16, 2019: The Rest And The Rejects


I’d promised on Sunday the remainder of last week’s mathematically-themed comic strips. I got busy with house chores yesterday and failed to post on time. That’s why this is late. It’s only a couple of comics here, but it does include my list of strips that I didn’t think were on-topic enough. You might like them, or be able to use them, yourself, though.

Niklas Eriksson’s Carpe Diem for the 14th depicts a kid enthusiastic about the abilities of mathematics to uncover truths. Suppressed truths, in this case. Well, it’s not as if mathematics hasn’t been put to the service of conspiracy theories before. Mathematics holds a great promise of truth. Answers calculated correctly are, after all, universally true. They can also offer a hypnotizing precision, with all the digits past the decimal point that anyone could want. But one catch among many is whether your calculations are about anything relevant to what you want to know. Another is whether the calculations were done correctly. It’s easy to make a mistake. If one thinks one has found exciting results it’s hard to imagine even looking for one.

Kid addressing the class: 'Science is important because without math, for instance, we couldn't have calculated the shadows on the images from the Moon landing and realized it was all a big fake.'
Niklas Eriksson’s Carpe Diem for the 14th of February, 2019. Essays expanding on something mentioned in Carpe Diem should be at this link.

You can’t use shadow analysis to prove the Moon landings fake. But the analysis of shadows can be good mathematics. It can locate things in space and in time. This is a kind of “inverse problem”: given this observable result, what combinations of light and shadow and position would have caused that? And there is a related problem. Johannes Vermeer produced many paintings with awesome, photorealistic detail. One hypothesis for how he achieved this skill is that he used optical tools, including a camera obscura and appropriate curved mirrors. So, is it possible to use the objects shown in perspective in his paintings to project where the original objects had to be, and where the painter had to be, to see them? We can calculate this, at least. I am not well enough versed in art history to say whether we have compelling answers.

Wilberforce: 'Ever since we watched Super Bowl LIII, I've been wondering. Is there anything else they use Roman numerals for?' Hattie: 'They're reserved for the most important, history-altering events, like Super Bowls and World Wars!'
Art Sansom and Chip Sansom’s The Born Loser for the 16th of February, 2019. I had thought this might be a new tag, but, no. Born Loser comics get discussed at this link.

Art Sansom and Chip Sansom’s The Born Loser for the 16th is the rare Roman Numerals joke strip that isn’t anthropomorphizing the numerals. Or a play on how the numerals used are also letters. But yeah, there’s not much use for them that isn’t decorative. Hindu-Arabic numerals have great advantages in compactness, and multiplication and division, and handling fractions of a whole number. And handling big numbers. Roman numerals are probably about as good for adding or subtracting small numbers, but that’s not enough of what we do anymore.


And past that there were three comic strips that had some mathematics element. But they were slight ones, and I didn’t feel I could write about them at length. Might like them anyway. Gordon Bess’s Redeye for the 10th of February, and originally run the 24th of September, 1972, has the start of a word problem as example of Pokey’s homework. Mark Litzler’s Joe Vanilla for the 11th has a couple scientist-types standing in front of a board with some mathematics symbols. The symbols don’t quite parse, to me, but they look close to it. Like, the line about l(\omega) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} l(x) e is close to what one would write for the Fourier transformation of the function named l. It would need to be more like L(\omega) = \int_{-\infty}^{\infty} l(x) e^{\imath \omega x} dx and even then it wouldn’t be quite done. So I guess Litzler used some actual reference but only copied as much as worked for the composition. (Which is not a problem, of course. The mathematics has no role in this strip beyond its visual appeal, so only the part that looks good needs to be there.) The Fourier transform’s a commonly-used trick; among many things, it lets us replace differential equations (hard, but instructive, and everywhere) with polynomials (comfortable and familiar and well-understood). Finally among the not-quite-comment-worthy is Pascal Wyse and Joe Berger’s Berger And Wyse for the 12th, showing off a Venn Diagram for its joke.


Next Sunday should be a fresh Reading the Comics post, which like all its kind, should appear at this link.

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Reading the Comics, November 20, 2018: What Mathematics Is For Edition


The first half of last week’s comics offered another bunch of chances to think about what mathematics is for. Before I do get into all that, though, may I mention the most recent update of Gregory Taylor’s serial:

It does conclude with a vote about the next direction to take. So it’s a good chance for people who like to see authors twisting to their audience’s demands.

Mort Walker and Dik Browne’s Hi and Lois for the 23rd of May, 1961 builds off a major use of arithmetic. Budgeting doesn’t get much attention from mathematicians. I suppose it seems to us like all the basic problems are solved: adding? Subtracting? Multiplication? All familiar things. Especially now with decimal currency. There are great unsolved problems in mathematics, but they get into specialized areas of financial mathematics and just don’t matter for ordinary household budgeting.

Lois: 'How much is 7 plus 19, Hi?' Hi: 'Golly! Don't you know how to add?' Lois: 'I guess I've forgotten.' (She's holding up a book marked Home Budget.) 'All I usually get to do is subtract.'
Mort Walker and Dik Browne’s Hi and Lois for the 23rd of May, 1961 and rerun the 19th of November, 2018. Essays that mention topics raised by Hi and Lois, both current-run and vintage, should be at this link.

Hi comes across a bit harsh here. I’m going to suppose he was taken so by surprise by Lois’s problem that he spoke without thinking.

Scott Hilburn’s The Argyle Sweater for the 19th is the anthropomorphic numerals strip for the week. With the title of “improper fractions” it’s wordplay on the common meaning for a mathematical term. Two times over, come to it. That negative refers to a class of numbers as well as disapproval of something is ordinary enough. I’ve mentioned it, I estimate, 840 times this month alone.

Caption: Improper Fractions. An anthropomorphic -5, teacher, dragging a 3/2: 'After I wash your mouth out, you're going down to the principal's office!' 3/2: 'Don't be so negative!'
Scott Hilburn’s The Argyle Sweater for the 19th of November, 2018. The many essays with mention of The Argyle Sweater will be at this link.

Jokes about the technical and common meanings of “improper” are rarer. In a proper fraction, the numerator is a smaller number than the denominator. In an improper fraction, we don’t count on that. I remember a modest bit of time in elementary and middle school working on converting improper fractions into mixed fractions — a whole number plus a proper fraction. And also don’t remember anyone caring about that after calculus. In most arithmetic work, there’s not much that’s easier about “1 + 1/2” than about “3/2”. The one major convenience “1 + 1/2” has is that it’s easy to tell at a glance how big the number is. It’s not mysterious how big a number 3/2 is, but that’s because of long familiarity. If I asked you whether 54/17 or 46/13 was the larger number, you’d be fairly stumped and maybe cranky. So there’s not much reason to worry about improper fractions while you’re doing work. For the final presentation of an answer, proper or mixed fractions may well be better.

Whoever colored that minus symbol before the 5 screwed up and confused the joke. Syndicated cartoonists give precise coloring instructions for Sunday strips. But many of them don’t, or aren’t able to, give coloring instructions for weekday strips like this. And mistakes like that are the unfortunate result.

A sign at the split in the road reads, 'Diversion'. It's a large sudoku, with stopped cars and people gathered around.
Pascal Wyse and Joe Berger’s Berger and Wyse for the 19th of November, 2018. Essays that bring up topics raised by Berger and Wyse will be this link.. It’s a new tag, though.

Pascal Wyse and Joe Berger’s Berger and Wyse for the 19th features a sudoku appearance. It’s labelled a diversion, and so it is, as many mathematics and logic puzzles will be. The lone commenter at GoComics claims to have solved the puzzle, so I will suppose they’re being honest about this.

Mom in Mathematic Land: 'One dimension, line A is 2 times as long as line B. Two dimensions: area varies with the square of length. The area of square A is 4 times that of square B. Three dimensions: Volume varies with the cube of length. Cube A has volume 8 times that of cube B. So when you see that two months of hard-fought chemotherapy and radiation have transformed THIS ... into THIS ... your crushing disappointment only betrays your mathematical ignorance.'
Brian Fies’s Mom’s Cancer for the 19th of November, 2018. The handful of essays inspired by Mom’s Cancer are at this link.

Brian Fies’s Mom’s Cancer for the 19th I have mentioned before, although not since I started including images for all mentioned comics. It’s set a moment when treatment for Mom’s cancer has been declared a great success.

The trouble is, as Feis lays out, volume is three-dimensional. We are pretty good at measuring the length, or at least the greatest width of something. You might call that the “characteristic length”. A linear dimension. But volume scales as the cube of this characteristic length. And the sad thing is that 0.8 times 0.8 times 0.8 is, roughly, 0.5. This means that the characteristic length dropping by 20% drops the volume by 50%. Or, as Feis is disappointed to see in this strip and its successor, the great news of a 50% reduction in the turmor’s mass is that it’s just 20% less big in every direction. It doesn’t look like enough.

One of Fi's audience: 'Why do I need to learn math? In the computer age, I just have to know ones and zeroes.' (Fi fumes, smoke steaming from her ears.) At the office Dethany reports: 'Fi texts 'every time I consider giving up these math seminars, I'm reminded why I can't'.'
Bill Holbrook’s On The Fastrack for the 20th of November, 2018. This and other essays inspired by On The Fastrack are at this link.

Bill Holbrook’s On The Fastrack for the 20th presents one of Fi’s seminars about why mathematics is a good thing. The offscreen student’s question about why one should learn mathematics goes unanswered. As often happens the question is presented as though it’s too absurd to deserve answering. The questioner is conflating “mathematics” with “calculating arithmetic”, yes. And a computer will be better at these calculations. A related question, sometimes asked (and rarely on-topic for my essays here), is why one needs to learn any specific facts when a computer is so much better at finding them.

Knowing facts is not understanding them, no. But it is hard to understand a thing without knowing facts. More, without loving the knowing of facts. If we don’t need to be good at calculating, we do still need to know what to have calculated. And why to calculate that instead of something else. In calculating we can learn things of great beauty. And some of us do go on to mathematics which cannot be calculated. There is software that will do very well at computing, say, the indefinite integral of functions. I don’t know of any that will even start on a problem like “find the kernel of this ring”. But these are problems we see, and think interesting, because our experience in arithmetic trains us to notice them. Perhaps there is new interesting mathematics that we would notice if we didn’t have preconceptions set by times tables and long division. But it is hard to believe that we can’t find it because we’re not ignorant enough. I wouldn’t risk it.


This and more Reading the Comics posts should all be at this link.

And for the rest of the calendar year my Fall 2018 Mathematics A To Z should continue posting new essays. I’m still looking for topics for the last half-dozen letters of the alphabet. Give your mathematics term a try.